This presentation initially discusses the two-way interactions between human activities related to food and nutrition security (FNS: in the context of the ‘food system’), and environmental change (in the context of ‘planetary boundaries’). It will also introduce some of the impacts of crossing these boundaries for FNS. The presentation will then discuss the current and anticipated food security status and factors that determine consumption patterns. This will be discussed in relation to the multiple roles of the ‘food chain’ (alternatively referred to as the food ‘value chain’), and the quantity and quality of food produced. The presentation will conclude with some options for changing the food system to both adapt to inevitable change and mitigate further change.